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14 JAN CURRENT AFFAIRS (MCQ)

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14 JAN CURRENT AFFAIRS (MCQ)

Q1. Consider the following statements regarding Ice Shelves.

  1. An ice shelf is a large floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier or ice sheet flows down to a coastline and onto the ocean surface.
  2. Ice shelves are found only in Antarctica.
  3. Ice shelf collapse could contribute to sea level rise.
    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 and 2
    b) 1 and 3 only
    c) 2 and 3 only
    d) 1, 2 & 3

Solution : b)
Explanation :-
• An ice shelf is a large floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier or ice sheet flows down to a coastline and onto the ocean surface.
• Ice shelf collapse could contribute to sea level rise indirectly.
• In recent years, ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula and along the northern coast of Canada have experienced rapid disintegration.
• Scientists think that the recent ice shelf collapses in both the Arctic and Antarctica are related to climate change.
• Hence, option (b) is the correct answer.

Q2. Consider the following statements regarding Irrawaddy dolphins.

  1. Of the six varieties of dolphins that are found in India’s rivers, lakes and around coastline, the Irrawaddy Dolphins are among the highest in number.
  2. The Irrawaddy Dolphins are found mostly in brackish water zones.
  3. In India, Irrawaddy Dolphins are found mainly in Chilika Lake.
    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 and 2
    b) 2 and 3 only
    c) 1 and 3
    d) 1, 2 & 3

Solution : b)
Explanation :-
• Of the six varieties of dolphins that are found in India’s rivers, lakes and around coastline, the Irrawaddy Dolphins are among the lowest in number.
• The Gangetic river dolphins are freshwater species that are found in the Sundarban river system and Brahmaputra rivers. On the other hand, the Irrawaddy Dolphins are found mostly in brackish water zones and that too in Chilika.
• The Irrawaddy Dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) is the flagship species of Chilika lake. Chilika is home to the only known population of Irrawaddy Dolphins in India and one of only two lagoons in the world that are home to this species.
• Hence, option (b) is the correct answer.

Q3. Consider the following statements regarding Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme.

  1. The PLI scheme aims to boost domestic manufacturing and cut down on imports by providing cash incentives on incremental sales from products manufactured in India.
  2. The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology is the single nodal ministry for the implementation of the PLI scheme.
  3. Adding any new sector for PLI scheme will require approval of the Union Cabinet. Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 and 2
    b) 1 and 3 only
    c) 2 and 3 only
    d) 1, 2 & 3

Solution : b)
Explanation :-
• The Union Cabinet approved an expansion of the Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme to include 10 more labour-intensive industry segments, including advance chemistry cell batteries, electronic and technology products, automobiles and auto components manufacturing, among others.
• The scheme for these sectors will be in addition to the PLI schemes for mobile phones and allied equipment manufacturing, pharmaceutical ingredients and medical devices.
• The PLI scheme aims to boost domestic manufacturing and cut down on imports by providing cash incentives on incremental sales from products manufactured in the country. Besides inviting foreign companies to set shop in India, the scheme aims to encourage local companies to set up, or expand, existing manufacturing units.
• The new sectors included under the PLI scheme are mostly labour-intensive and will be implemented by the respective ministries. For instance, the Niti Aayog will implement the PLI scheme for the manufacture of advanced chemistry cell batteries. The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology is the nodal ministry for the implementation of the PLI scheme for mobile phone manufacturing.
• Any new sector for PLI will require fresh approval of the Union Cabinet.
• Hence, option (b) is the correct answer.

Q4. Consider the following statements with regard to CollabCAD, recently in news

  1. It is an initiative launched under the Atal Innovation Mission, NITI Aayog by the National Informatics Centre (NIC).
  2. The aim of this initiative is to provide a great platform to students of Atal Tinkering Labs (ATLs) across the country to create and modify 3d designs with free flow of creativity and imagination.
    Which of the above statement/s is/are correct?
    a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
About CollabCAD:
• Launched by: Atal Innovation Mission, NITI Aayog and National Informatics Centre (NIC) jointly launched CollabCAD.
• Aim: To provide a great platform to students of Atal Tinkering Labs (ATLs) across the country to create and modify 3d designs with free flow of creativity and imagination.
• Hence, option (c) is the correct answer.

Q5. Consider the following pairs
Marine Turtles IUCN Status

  1. Hawksbill turtle Endangered
  2. Green turtle Critically Endangered
  3. Leatherback Vulnerable
  4. Olive Ridley Vulnerable
    Which of the above pairs are correctly matched?
    a) 1 and 4
    b) 2 and 3 only
    c) 2 and 4 only
    d) All of the above

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
• Vulnerable: The Olive Ridley, Leatherback and Loggerhead are listed as ‘Vulnerable’ on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
• Critically Endangered: The Hawksbill turtle.
• Endangered: Green Turtle.
• Hence, option (c) is the correct answer.

Q6. Consider the following statements:

  1. The Supreme Court has decriminalised adultery.
  2. Adultery cannot be a ground for civil remedy like the dissolution of marriage. Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : a)
Explanation :-
Joseph Shine v Union of India (2018): The Supreme Court decriminalised adultery, and said that a law that treats women differently based on gender stereotypes is a threat to women’s dignity. Section 497 (adultery) of the Indian Penal Code cannot “command” married couples to remain loyal to each other for the fear of penal punishment. 1 is correct.
• The judgment said that the 158-year-old law was unconstitutional and is violative of Article 21 (Right to life and personal liberty) and Article 14 (Right to equality).
• The Bench had also held that Section 198 (2) of the CrPC, which gave the cuckolded husband the exclusive right to prosecute his wife’s lover, was manifestly arbitrary.
• On the other hand, the verdict had said that adultery can however be a ground for civil remedy like the dissolution of marriage. 2 is incorrect.
• Hence, option (a) is the correct answer.

Q7. Consider the following statements:

  1. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines polio or poliomyelitis as “a highly infectious bacterial disease, which mainly affects young children.
  2. The Oral Polio Vaccination (OPV) is mandatory for those travelling between India and polio-affected countries.
    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : b)
Explanation :- Polio
• The World Health Organization (WHO) defines polio or poliomyelitis as “a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young children. 1 is incorrect
• The virus is transmitted by person-to-person, spread mainly through the faecal-oral route or, less frequently, by a common vehicle (e.g. contaminated water or food) and multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system and can cause paralysis.
Polio free India: The WHO on February 24, 2012, removed India from the list of countries with active endemic wild polio virus transmission.
• Two years later, the South-East Asia Region of the WHO, of which India is a part, was certified as polio-free.
• To prevent the virus from coming to India, the government has since March 2014 made the Oral Polio Vaccination (OPV) mandatory for those travelling between India and polio-affected countries, such as Afghanistan, Nigeria, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Syria and Cameroon. 2 is correct.
• Hence, option (b) is the correct answer.

Q8. With reference to the Makar Sankranti, consider the following statements:

  1. Makar Sankranti is observed according to solar cycles.
  2. It is also called as Sukaraat in Madhya Pradesh. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
    a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
The Vice President of India greeted fellow citizens on the eve of the festivals of Lohri, Makar Sankranti, Pongal, Bhogali Bihu, Uttarayan and Paush Parbon. These festivals are celebrated in diverse yet similar ways, across India.
• Makar Sankranti is a festival day in the Hindu calendar, in reference to deity Surya (sun).
• Date of observance: Makar Sankranti is observed according to solar cycles. It is held normally on the 14th of January, or a day before or after. In certain regions celebrations can go on for even four days and vary a lot in the rituals.
• Significance: It marks the –
o first day of sun’s transit into the Makara (Capricorn), marking the end of the month with the winter solstice and the start of longer days. o end the inauspicious phase of the preceding month that is called Paush.
o beginning of the end of chilling winter.
o occasion to celebrate the hard work of millions of our farmers and people across the country (it is celebrated as a harvest Festival)
• It goes by its standard all-India name, ‘Makar Sankranti’ in Odisha, Maharashtra-Goa, AndhraTelengana, Kerala and most of the north India.
• It is also called as – o Paush Parbon in Bengal, o Pongal in Tamil Nadu, o Uttarayan in Gujarat, o Bhogali Bihu in Assam, o Lohri in Punjab and Jammu, o Maghi in Haryana and Himachal. o Makar Sankramana in Karnataka, o Saen-kraat in Kashmir.
o Sukaraat in Madhya Pradesh, o Khichdi Parwa in parts of Bihar, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh. • Hence both statements are correct.

Q9. With reference to the LCA Tejas, consider the following statements:

  1. Light Combat Aircraft Mk-1A variant is an indigenously designed, developed and manufactured state-of-the-art modern 4+ generation fighter aircraft.
  2. It is the first “Buy (Indian-Indigenously Designed, Developed and Manufactured)” category procurement of combat aircrafts with an indigenous content of 50% which will progressively reach 60% by the end of the programme.
    Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
    a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
The Union Cabinet has approved procurement of 73 LCA Tejas Mk-1A fighter aircrafts and 10 LCA Tejas Mk-1 Trainer aircrafts at the cost of Rs. 45,696 Crore along with Design and Development of Infrastructure sanctions worth Rs.1,202 Crore.
• Light Combat Aircraft Mk-1A variant is an indigenously designed, developed and manufactured state-of-the-art modern 4+ generation fighter aircraft.
• This aircraft is equipped with critical operational capabilities of Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) Radar, Beyond Visual Range (BVR) Missile, Electronic Warfare (EW) Suite and Air to Air Refuelling (AAR) would be a potent platform to meet the operational requirements of Indian Air Force, IAF.
• It is the first “Buy (Indian-Indigenously Designed, Developed and Manufactured)” category procurement of combat aircrafts with an indigenous content of 50% which will progressively reach 60% by the end of the programme.
• The Cabinet has also approved infrastructure development by IAF under the project to enable them handle servicing at their base depot so that the turnaround time would get reduced for mission critical systems and would lead to increased availability of aircraft.
• Hence both statements are correct.

Q10. India and which of the following country recently signed a MoU for Scientific and Technical Cooperation in the areas of Tsunami Early Warning Centre (TEWC) and Early warnings of Sand and Dust storms?
a) U.A.E
b) China
c) Nepal
d) Maldives

Solution : a)
Explanation :-
The Union Cabinet has approved the MoU on Scientific and Technical Cooperation between National Centre of Meteorology (NCM), United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) India.
The MoU provides for:
• Exchange of experience/visits in term of scientists, research scholars and specialists, etc. for the purpose of research, training, consultation, focused on climatic information services, satellite data utilization for now casting and tropical cyclones forecasting.
• Cooperation to support the Tsunami Early Warning Centre (TEWC) in the form of forecast modelling software, specifically designed to support the Tsunami forecasting operations.
• Cooperate at the field of Seismology which includes the study of Seismic activities having the potential to generate Tsunami waves in Arabian Sea and Oman Sea.
• Cooperation in Early warnings of Sand and Dust storms through the exchange of knowledge.
• Hence, option (a) is the correct answer.

Q11. With reference to Millets, consider the following statements:

  1. Millets are the cereal crops generally small-seeded and known for high nutritive value.
  2. Indian Institute of Millets Research (ICAR-IIMR) is located in Delhi. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
    a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : a)
Explanation :-
The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) in association with Andhra Pradesh Drought Mitigation Project (APDMP), an externally aided project funded by IFAD, organized a Virtual Buyer Seller Meet with Millet Exporters.
• Millet is a common term to categorize small-seeded grasses that are often termed nutricereals, and includes Sorghum, Pearl Millet, Ragi, Small Millet, Foxtail Millet, Proso Millet, Barnyard Millet, Kodo Millet and other millets.
• Millets are the cereal crops generally small-seeded and known for high nutritive value.
• Considering the potential of increasing exports of Millets and Millet products and the focus given by Government for development of Millet sector of Nurti Cereals, APEDA is closely interacting with Indian Institute of Millet Research (IIMR) and other stakeholders
Indian Institute of Millets Research (ICAR-IIMR) is an agricultural research institute engaged in basic and strategic research on sorghum and other millets. It is located at Rajendranagar (Hyderabad, Telangana). IIMR operates under the aegis of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). It was founded in 1958 under the Project on Intensified Research on Cotton, Oilseeds and Millets (PIRCOM).
Hence only statement 1 is correct.

Q12. With reference to the ICT Grand Challenge, for development of a ‘Smart water supply measurement and monitoring system’, consider the following statements:

  1. Jal Jeevan Mission would be the user agency of the Grand Challenge and C-DAC, Bangalore is the implementing agency, providing technical support for the challenge.
  2. Jal Jeevan Mission is a flagship programme of Union Government which aims to provide tap water connection to every rural household by 2024.
    Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
    a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
National Jal Jeevan Mission (NJJM), Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Jal Shakti in partnership with Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology launched an ICT Grand Challenge, for development of a ‘Smart water supply measurement and monitoring system’ on 15th September, 2020.
• Jal Jeevan Mission would be the user agency of the Grand Challenge and C-DAC, Bangalore is the implementing agency, providing technical support for the challenge.
• Total 218 applications were received, from various sectors like LLP Companies, Indian Tech start-ups, Individuals etc.
• Results of ICT Grand Challenge were announced on 20th November 2020, based on the recommendations of the jury.
• 10 applicants have been selected for ideation to prototype stage and each are being supported with Rs. 7.50 Lakhs.
• Currenty the prototypes are being developed which are going to be evaluated during the last week of January, 2021 by the jury. A water test bed is set up in C-DAC Bangalore Electronics City Campus for these evaluations.
• Jal Jeevan Mission is a flagship programme of Union Government which aims to provide tap water connection to every rural household by 2024.
• Announced by Prime Minister on 15th August, 2019, the Mission so far has provided 3.13 crore household tap connections in rural areas.
• Hence both statements are correct.

Q13. Which of the following is the first insect approved by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) as a human food?
a) Blattodea
b) Hemiptera
c) Mosquito
d) Mealworms

Solution : d)
Explanation :-
Mealworms may soon find their way into Europe’s pasta bowls and dinner dishes, after becoming the first insect approved in the region as a human food.
• Mealworms are the larval form of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, a species of darkling beetle. Despite their name, mealworms are beetle larvae rather than worms.
• Like all holometabolic insects, they go through four life stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult.
• Larvae typically measure about 2.5 cm or more, whereas adults are generally between 1.25 and 1.8 cm in length.
• The decision by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) paves the way for the yellow grubs to be used whole and dried in curries and other recipes and as a flour to make biscuits, pasta and bread.
• Rich in protein, fat and fibre, they are likely to be the first of many insects to feature on European’s plates in the coming years.
• Hence, option (d) is the correct answer.

Q14. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has recently constituted a working group chaired by Jayant Kumar Dash which is related to:
a) Conversion of big Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs) into banks
b) Digital lending
c) Review Extant Ownership Guidelines and Corporate Structure for Indian Private Sector Banks
d) None of the above

Solution : b)
Explanation :-
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has constituted a working group on digital lending — including online platforms and mobile apps — to study all aspects of digital lending activities in the regulated financial sector as well as by unregulated players.
• The working group consists of both internal and external members and is chaired by Jayant Kumar Dash, Executive Director, RBI
• The working group will
o evaluate digital lending activities and assess the penetration and standards of outsourced digital lending activities in RBI regulated entities;
o identify the risks posed by unregulated digital lending to financial stability, regulated entities and consumers; and
o suggest regulatory changes to promote orderly growth of digital lending.
• It will also recommend measures for expansion of specific regulatory or statutory perimeter and suggest the role of various regulatory and government agencies. It will also recommend a robust fair practices code for digital lending players.
• The group will submit its report within three months.
• Hence, option (b) is the correct answer.