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8 & 9 MARCH CURRENT AFFAIRS (MCQ)

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8 & 9 MARCH CURRENT AFFAIRS (MCQ)

Q1. Consider the following statements with respect to the Sattras that lie at the heart of Assamese culture

  1. Sattras are a monastic institution created as part of the 16th century Neo-Shaivite reformist movement started by saint-reformer Srimanta Sankaradeva.
  2. At present, Sattras are spread across the state propagating
    Sankardeva’s unique worship through – music (borgeet), dance (sattriya) and theatre (bhauna).
    Which of the above statement/s is/are correct? a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : b) Explanation :-
About the Sattras:
• Sattras are a monastic institution: Created as part of the 16th century Neo-Vaishnavite reformist movement started by Vaishnavite saint-reformer Srimanta Sankaradeva (1449-1596).
o Each Sattra has a naamghar – worship hall, as its nucleus and is headed by an influential Sattradhikar.
o Monks or bhakats are inducted into Sattras at a young age.
o They may or may not be celibate, depending on the kind of Sattra they are inducted into.
• Established as centres of religious, social and cultural reforms: As the saint travelled across Assam, spreading his teachings and propagating an egalitarian society in the 16th century.
• Spread: At present, Sattras are spread across the state propagating Sankardeva’s unique worship through art – music (borgeet), dance (sattriya) and theatre (bhauna).
• Relationship between the Sattra and the State:
o Ahom reign: The Sattras received a lot of donations in the form of land or money from the kings. Despite that, Sattras were kept out of political control.
o Self-sufficient units: Unlike temples, Sattras did not require patronage because they were self-sufficient, grew their own food and could sustain themselves.

Q2. Consider the following statements with respect to Sankardeva – a Vaishnavite saint-reformer from Assam

  1. He propagated a form of Bhakti rejecting focus on vedic ritualism and focusing on devotion (bhakti) to Krishna in the form of congregational listening, singing his name and idol worship.
  2. He espoused a society based on equality and fraternity, free from caste differences, orthodox Brahmanical rituals and sacrifices.
    Which of the above statement/s is/are incorrect? a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : a)
Explanation :-
Philosophy of Sankardeva:
• Sankardeva propagated a form of Bhakti called eka-sharana-naamdhrama.
o It rejects focus on vedic ritualism and focuses on devotion (bhakti) to Krishna in the form of congregational listening and singing his name (instead of idol worship) and deeds (Kirtan and sravan).
o His dharma was based on the four components of deva (god), naam (prayers), bhakats (devotees), and guru (teacher).
• He espoused a society based on equality and fraternity, free from caste differences, orthodox Brahmanical rituals and sacrifices.
• However, due to ideological differences among his disciples, the Sattras got divided (after his demise) into four independent sectarian divisions, deviating from its basic goal.

Q3. Consider the following statements with respect to the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) notification 2018

  1. It is aimed at streamlining CRZ clearances, enhancing activities in the coastal regions and promoting economic growth while keeping in mind conservation principles of coastal regions.
  2. It is based on the recommendations of the Shailesh Nayak Committee. Which of the above statement/s is/are correct? a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
CRZ Notifications 2018:
• It is aimed at streamlining Coastal Regulation Zone clearances, enhancing activities in the coastal regions and promoting economic growth while keeping in mind conservation principles of coastal regions.
• It is based on the recommendations of the Shailesh Nayak Committee.
• It permits temporary tourism facilities such as shacks, toilet blocks, change rooms, drinking water facilities etc. in beaches. Such temporary tourism facilities are also now permissible in NDZ(No Development Zone) of the CRZ-III areas.
• To address pollution in coastal areas, setting up of treatment facilities have been made permissible activities in the CRZ-IB area subject to necessary safeguards.

Q4. Which of the following statements with respect to the Maitri Setu is incorrect?
a) The bridge connects Indian state of West Bengal with Bangladesh
b) It is built over feni river
c) It will ease India’s access to Chittagong Port of Bangladesh
d) All the above are correct

Solution : a)
Explanation :-
About the Maitri Setu:
• Over Feni: The bridge has been built over the Feni river which flows between Indian boundary in Tripura State and Bangladesh.
o It is a 1.9 Km long bridge that joins Sabroom in India with Ramgarh in Bangladesh.
o The construction was taken up by the National Highways and Infrastructure Development Corporation Ltd at a project cost of Rs. 133 Crores.
• Significance:
o Maitri Setu symbolizes growing bilateral relations and friendly ties between India and Bangladesh.
o With this, Tripura is set to become the Gateway of North East with access to Chittagong Port of Bangladesh, which is just 80 Kms from Sabroom.

Q5. Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana is an scheme of a) Ministry of Power
b) Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas
c) Ministry of Renewable Energy
d) Ministry of Women and Child Welfare

Solution : b)
Explanation :-
It is a scheme of the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas for providing LPG connections to women from Below Poverty Line (BPL) households launched in 2016.
Target beneficiaries:
Under the scheme, an adult woman belonging to a poor family not having LPG connection in her household, is an eligible beneficiary under the expanded scheme. Release of LPG connection under this Scheme shall be in the name of the women belonging to the BPL family.
Initially, the Government covered the following categories under the Scheme:-

  1. Beneficiaries listed in the SECC 2011 list
  2. All SC/STs households beneficiaries of Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana(PMAY) (Gramin)
  3. Antyoday Anna Yojana (AAY)
  4. Forest dwellers
  5. Most Backward Classes (MBC)
  6. Tea & Ex-Tea Garden Tribes
  7. People residing in Islands
  8. People residing in river islands.
    Benefits to the citizens
    • Under the scheme, five crore LPG connections are to be provided to BPL households.
    • The Scheme provides a financial support of Rs 1600 for each LPG connection to the BPL households, interest free loan to purchase stove and refill by Oil Marketing Companies.
    • The administrative cost of Rs. 1600 per connection, which includes a cylinder, pressure regulator, booklet, safety hose, etc. would be borne by the Government.

Q6. Consider the following statements:

  1. National Education Policy, 2020 envisions that all existing Higher Educational Institutes would evolve into multidisciplinary institutions under three categories.
  2. Cluster-based universities would increase faculty strength, both in terms of numbers and diversity of disciplines.
    Which of the above statements is/are correct? a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
The National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, which is based on five fundamental pillars — access, equity, quality, affordability and accountability – has potential for an overhaul of the education system in India.
• The main thrust of NEP 2020 in higher education is to transform HEIs into large multidisciplinary universities, colleges, and HEI clusters, with 3,000 or more students each.
• The core of the plan for the overhaul of higher education is its structural reorganisation into large, multidisciplinary universities and colleges (at least one in or near every district), many of these offering instruction in local languages.
• This policy envisions that all existing HEIs would evolve into multidisciplinary institutions of following three categories by 2040 — o Research Intensive Universities (RUs) o Teaching Universities (TUs) o Autonomous Degree-granting Colleges (ACs).
• The current system of a fragmented education industry is filled with multiple degree or diploma granting HEIs, such as, standalone institutions, IITs, IIMs, Central Universities, State Universities, Deemed Universities, and so on.
• This streamlining exercise of building the higher education architecture would surely help in removing confusion in the minds of recruiters and universities world over.
Benefits of Cluster Universities
• Accelerate Institutional Networking: Since the Cluster University concept of the new education policy speaks of merging multidisciplinary HEIs, institutional networking would obviously go uphill.
• Fewer Resources & More Expertise: Doctoral students are the mainstay of research in universities. It enables conducting academic research on focussed areas. It also enables pursuit of academic research and post-academic research in the same university, and results in faster deployment of results of research.
• A university management system can be integrated to multiply the productivity, efficiency, and final learning outcomes.
• More Space for Student-Teacher Collaboration: Cluster-based universities would increase faculty strength, both in terms of numbers and diversity of disciplines, and facilitate conduct of research on real life problems.

Q7. Consider the following statements:

  1. The Institute of National Importance is a status that may be conferred only by an act of Parliament of India.
  2. National School of Drama (or NSD) comes under the Ministry of Education.
    Which of the above statements is/are correct? a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : a)
Explanation :-
Only Statement 1 is correct.
Institute of National Importance
• The Institute of National Importance is a status that may be conferred on a premier public higher education institution in India by an act of Parliament of India.
• It is an institution which “serves as a pivotal player in developing highly skilled personnel within the specified region of the country / state “.
• Section 22 of The University Grants Commission Act 1956 enables ‘Degree Granting Status’ to such INIs established by an Act of Parliament for conferring or granting degrees..
• These institutions are largely funded and supervised, if not governed, by the Government of India, mostly through the Ministry of Education.
National School of Drama (or NSD)
• It is a theatre training institute situated at New Delhi, India. It is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Culture.
• The NSD has four regional centres in Varanasi, Bengaluru, Agartala and Gangtok.

Q8. Which of the following are the benefits under Institute of Eminence scheme?

  1. Government Institutions to get additional funding upto 1000 Cr.
  2. Freedom to recruit faculty from outside India (limit of 25% of its faculty strength for public institution).
  3. Freedom to enter into academic collaborations with other Institutions within the country.
  4. Freedom to have own transparent merit based system for admission of students.
  5. Freedom to admit additionally foreign students on merit subject to a maximum of 30% of the strength of admitted domestic students.
    Select the correct code: a) 1, 2 & 3
    b) 1, 4 & 5
    c) 1, 2, 3 & 4
    d) All of the above

Solution : d)
Explanation :-
Institute of Eminence
• Recently the govt. announced the list of Institutes of Eminence (IoE).
• Every institute which has been accorded the status of Institute of Eminence will enjoy benefits which include additional funding, autonomy in recruitment, assessment patterns etc. The detailed benefits have been listed out below:
o Government Institutions to get additional funding upto 1000 Cr.
o Freedom to recruit faculty from outside India (limit of 25% of its faculty strength for public institution).
o Freedom to enter into academic collaborations with other Institutions within the country.
o Freedom to have own transparent merit based system for admission of students.
o Freedom to admit additionally foreign students on merit subject to a maximum of 30% of the strength of admitted domestic students.
o Freedom to fix and charge fees from foreign students without restriction.
o The selected Institutions under IoE shall have complete academic and administrative autonomy.
o The Institutions of Eminence will have complete financial autonomy to spend the resources raised and allocated, subject to general conditions & restrictions of the Statutes and GFR.
o Academic collaborations with foreign higher educational institutions (in top 500) would be exempt from government approvals.
o Freedom to hire personnel from industry, etc, as faculty who are experts in their areas but may not have the requisite higher academic qualifications.

Q9. With reference to the CALM-2 mutations, consider the following statements:

  1. CALM-2 mutations are known to cause sudden death due to cardiac arrest.
  2. Calmodulin 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CALM2 gene. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
In Australia, Leading scientists and medical experts are calling for the pardon of convicted child killer Kathleen Folbigg after a recent study showed that her victims — four of her children — may have died of natural causes.
• Medical experts have argued that her children died due to a rare genetic defect. They inherited a genetic mutation from their mother called CALM2.
• CALM-2 mutations are known to cause sudden death due to cardiac arrest.
• Calmodulin 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CALM2 gene.
Mutations in CALM2 are associated to cardiac arrhythmias.
• Hence both statements are correct.

Q10. Gahirmatha marine sanctuary is located in:
a) Tamil Nadu
b) Karnataka
c) Andhra Pradesh
d) Odisha

Solution : d)
Explanation :-
A three-member panel constituted by the Orissa High Court made a field trip to the Gahirmatha marine sanctuary here and assessed the measures taken for the conservation of endangered olive ridley sea turtles.
• The action followed a February 4 report on an online environment magazine which said 800 olive ridley turtles have died since January due to negligence of the States Forest and Fisheries department.
• The olive ridley turtles turn up in millions for mass nesting along the Odisha coast every year.
• Gahirmatha beach off Bay of Bengal coast in Kendrapara district, Odisha is acclaimed as the world’s largest nesting ground of these turtles.
• Hence, option (d) is the correct answer.