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Q1. Consider the following statements-

  1. Under Telegraph Act,1885 government can intercept calls or messages under

certain conditions only.

  1. Information Technology Act does not have any provisions for interception of
    Which of the statements is/are not correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: b)
Statement 2 is not correct.
Telegraph Act:
• Under Section 5(2) of this law, the government can intercept calls only in
certain situations:
o Interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India,
o Security of the state,
o Friendly relations with foreign states or public order,
o Preventing incitement to the commission of an offence.
• These are the same restrictions imposed on free speech under Article 19(2)
of the Constitution.
• However, these restrictions can be imposed only when there is a condition
precedent – the occurrence of any public emergency, or in the interest of
public safety.
• Further, the grounds of selecting a person for surveillance and extent of
information gathering has to be recorded in writing.
• This lawful interception cannot take place against journalists.
• IT Act, 2000:
o Section 69 of the Information Technology Act and the Information
Technology (Procedure for Safeguards for Interception,

Monitoring and Decryption of Information) Rules, 2009 were
enacted to further the legal framework for electronic surveillance.
o However, the scope of Section 69 the IT Act is much broader and
vague than the Telegraph Act as the only condition precedent for
engaging electronic surveillance is for the “investigation of an
o These provisions are problematic and offer the government total
opacity in respect of its interception and monitoring activities.

Q2. Which of the following statements are correct about Essential Defence Services
Bill, 2021?

  1. The government may declare any service as an essential defense services if
    the prerequisite conditions are triggered.
  2. Government may prohibit strikes or callouts in units engaged in essential
    defense service.
  3. It will amend the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 to include essential defence
    services under public utility services.

Select the correct answer using the code below-
a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only
c) 2 only
d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: d)
All statements are correct.
Recently, the government introduced the Essential Defence Services Bill,
2021 in Lok Sabha.
• It seeks to replace the ordinance issued in June 2021 and prohibits any
agitation and strike by anyone engaged in the essential defence services.
Key Points
• Essential Defence Services:
o It includes any service in any establishment or undertaking dealing
with production of goods or equipment required for

defence related purposes or any establishment of the armed
forces or connected with them or defence.
▪ It also includes services that, if ceased, would affect the safety
of the establishment engaged in such services or its

o In addition, the government may declare any service as an
essential defence service if its cessation would affect the:
▪ Production of defence equipment or goods.
▪ Operation or maintenance of industrial establishments or units
engaged in such production.
▪ Repair or maintenance of products connected with defence.

Prohibition on strikes, lock-outs, and lay-offs:
• Government may prohibit strikes, lock-outs, and lay-offs in units
engaged in essential defence services.
• Public Utility Service:
o It will amend the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 to include essential
defence services under public utility services.
o The undertakings which supply the basic necessary services such as
electricity, water, gas, power, transport etc. comes under the purview
of the public utility services.

Q3. In context of Indian Polity- “Right to Strike” is a –
a) Fundamental Right
b) Constitutional Right
c) Statutory Right
d) None of the above

Solution: c)

Right to Strike-
Right to strike is recognized globally. Article 19(1) the Constitution of India

guarantees the protection of certain freedoms as fundamental rights such as:

  1. Freedom of speech and expression.
  2. Assemble peaceably and without arms.
  3. Form associations or unions.
  4. Move freely throughout the territory of India.
  5. Reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
  6. Practise any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
    However, strike is not expressly recognized in the Constitution of India. The
    Supreme Court settled the case of Kameshwar Prasad v. The State of Bihar
    1958 by stating that strike is not a fundamental right. Government employees
    have no legal or moral rights to go on strikes.
    India recognized strike as a statutory right under the Industrial Disputes Act,

Q4. In context of appointments in higher judiciary, consider the following


  1. Judges of High Court are appointed by Governor in consultation with Chief

Justice of concerned state.

  1. High Court judges are recommended by collegium of High Court comprising
    Chief Justice of High Court and two senior most member of the court.
    Which of the statements is/are not correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: d)
Both statements are incorrect.
Appointment of HC Judges:
Article 217 of the Constitution: It states that the Judge of a High Court shall be
appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice of
India (CJI), the Governor of the State.
In the case of appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the Chief
Justice of the High Court is consulted.
Consultation Process: High Court judges are recommended by a Collegium
comprising the CJI and two senior-most judges.

The proposal, however, is initiated by the Chief Justice of the High Court
concerned in consultation with two senior-most colleagues.
The recommendation is sent to the Chief Minister, who advises the Governor to
send the proposal to the Union Law Minister.

Q5. Which of the statements are correct about Central Bureau of Investigation?

  1. It is the premier investigation police agency of India.
  2. It functions under the department of personnel, pension and public
  3. It derives it’s power from Delhi Police and Establishment Act.

Select the correct answer using the code below-
a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 only
c) 2 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: d)
All statements are correct.
• Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the premier investigating police
agency in India.
• It functions under the superintendence of the Deptt. of Personnel, Ministry
of Personnel, Pension & Public Grievances, Government of India – which falls
under the prime minister’s office.
• However for investigations of offences under the Prevention of Corruption
Act, its superintendence vests with the Central Vigilance Commission.
• It is also the nodal police agency in India which coordinates investigation on
behalf of Interpol Member countries.
• Its conviction rate is as high as 65 to 70% and it is comparable to the best
investigation agencies in the world.

Q6. Which of the following are attributes of Mangroves?

  1. Viviparous
  2. Succulent Leaves
  3. Low Oxygen
  4. Saline Environment

Select the correct answer using the code below-
a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only
c) 1,2 and 4 only
d) All of the above

Solution: d)
All are correct.
About Mangroves-
• A mangrove is a small tree or shrub that grows along coastlines, taking
root in salty sediments, often underwater.
• The word ‘mangrove’ may refer to the habitat as a whole or to the trees
and shrubs in the mangrove swamp.
• Mangroves are flowering trees, belonging to the families Rhizophoraceae,
Acanthaceae, Lythraceae, Combretaceae, and Arecaceae.
• Features of Mangroves:
o Saline environment: They can survive under extreme hostile
environments such as high salt and low oxygen conditions.
o Low oxygen: Underground tissue of any plant needs oxygen for
respiration. But in a mangrove environment, the oxygen in soil is
limited or nil. Hence the mangrove root system absorbs oxygen from
the atmosphere.
▪ Mangroves have special roots for this purpose called breathing
roots or pneumatophores.
▪ These roots have numerous pores through which oxygen enters
the underground tissues.

o Succulent leaves: Mangroves, like desert plants, store fresh water in
thick succulent leaves.
▪ A waxy coating on the leaves seals in water and minimises
o Viviparous: Their seeds germinate while still attached to the parent
tree. Once germinated, the seedling grows into a propagule.

▪ The mature propagule then drops into the water and gets
transported to a different spot, eventually taking root in a solid

Q7. “Nord Stream 2 Pipeline” have been recently seen in news is associated with
which of the following countries?
a) India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh
b) Iraq, Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan
c) Germany and Russia
d) Nepal and Bhutan

Solution: c)
Recently, the US has approved the Germany-Russia Nord Stream 2 Pipeline
(NS2P) project – which significantly increases Europe’s energy dependence on
• The US had previously imposed sanctions to prevent the completion of this
gas pipeline between Russia and Germany.
• This is a 1,200-km pipeline that runs from Ust-Luga in Russia to Greifswald
in Germany through the Baltic Sea. It will carry 55 billion cubic metres of
gas per year. It was decided to build this pipeline in 2015.

Q8. Consider the following statements-

  1. A digital currency is a currency which has no tangibility.
  2. In India, Digital Currencies can be transferred only through RBI.
  3. El, Salvador is the first country in world to adopt Bitcoin as legal tender.

Select the correct answer using the code below-
a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only
c) 3 only
d) 1 and 3 only

| CAPS [July 26 2021] | © Absolute IAS Academy Page | 9
Solution: d)
Statement 2 is not correct.
In India, there is no RBI regulated currency as of now. It is in pipeline.
Digital Currency:
• It is a payment method which exists only in electronic form and is not
• It can be transferred between entities or users with the help of
technology like computers, smartphones and the internet.
• Although it is similar to physical currencies, digital money allows borderless
transfer of ownership as well as instantaneous transactions.
• Digital currency is also known as digital money and cybercash.
Recent Developments:
• El Salvador, a small coastal country in Central America, has become the first
in the world to adopt Bitcoin, as legal tender.
• Britain is also exploring the possibility of creating a Central Bank Digital
Currency (Britcoin).
• In 2020, China started testing its official digital currency which is unofficially
called “Digital Currency Electronic Payment, DC/EP”.
• In April 2018, RBI banned banks and other regulated entities from
supporting crypto transactions after digital currencies were used for frauds.
In March 2020, the Supreme Court struck down the ban as unconstitutional.

Q9. Consider the following statements-

  1. In India, there are more than 50 UNESCO World Heritage sites.
  2. Once declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, it remains status quo.
  3. The World Heritage Sites is maintained by World Heritage Programme.

Select the correct answer using the code below-
a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only
c) 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: c)
Statement 1 and 2 are not correct.
World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by UNESCO for its special cultural or
physical significance. The list of World Heritage Sites is maintained by the
international ‘World Heritage Programme’, administered by the UNESCO World
Heritage Committee.
It seeks to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and
natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to
This is embodied in an international treaty called the Convention concerning the
Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by UNESCO in
It provides a framework for international cooperation in preserving and protecting
cultural treasures and natural areas throughout the world.
• Sites in India:
o India has 38 world heritage sites, including 30 cultural properties,
7 natural properties and 1 mixed site.

Recently, the city of Liverpool, England has been removed from UNESCO’s
(United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) list of
world heritage sites.
• Reasons for Delisting:
o The new buildings including a football stadium undermine the
attractiveness of its Victorian docks and were destroying the heritage
value of its waterfront.
o The over development would irreversibly damage the heritage of the
historic port.
• Other Delisted Sites:
o Wildlife sanctuary in Oman in 2007.
▪ Reason: poaching and habitat loss.
o Dresden Elbe valley in Germany in 2009.

Q10. With reference to the One Stop Centres (OSCs), consider the following

  1. It is a centrally sponsored scheme for addressing the problem of violence
    against women.
  2. The Central Government provides 100% financial assistance to the State
    Governments and Union Territories administrations.
    Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: c)
• The Ministry of Women and Child Development will set up One Stop Centres
(OSCs) across 10 countries to provide assistance to Indian women who are
survivors of gender-based violence.
• It is a centrally sponsored scheme for addressing the problem of violence
against women. It was launched in April 2015. Hence, statement 1 is
• One stop centre will be established across the country and at least one OSC
in every mission around the world to provide integrated support and
assistance under one roof to women affected by violence.
• It is funded through Nirbhaya Fund and the central government provides
100% financial assistance to the state governments /Union Territories
administrations. Hence, statement 2 is correct.