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Q1. Consider the following items
Tribes Community Regions Associated

  1. Hakki Pikki Uttarakhand
  2. Vann Gujjars Karnataka
  3. Bru/Reang Tripura
    Which of the above is/are correct?
    a) 1 and 2 only
    b) 2 only
    c) 3 only
    d) 2 and 3 only

Solution: c)

 Bru or Reang is a community indigenous to Northeast India, living mostly in
Tripura, Mizoram and Assam. In Tripura, they are recognised as a Particularly
Vulnerable Tribal Group.
 Van Gujjars are the forest-dwelling nomadic community inhabiting the foothills of
Himalayan States such as Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and
 Usually, they migrate to the bugyals (grasslands) located in the upper Himalayas with
their buffaloes and return only at the end of monsoons to their makeshift huts, deras,
in the foothills.
 They traditionally practice buffalo husbandry; a family owns up to 25 heads of
buffaloes. They rely on buffaloes for milk, which gets them a good price in
Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh markets.
 The HakkiPikki tribes are semi nomadic tribal people, have four clans namely the
Gujrathioa, Kaliwala, Mewara and Panwara.
 They speak many south Indian languages such as Kannada, Tamil, Telugu and
Malayalam along with Vagribooli which is similar to Guajarati.
 The HakkiPikki, meaning “bird catchers” in Kannada.
 It is a Scheduled Tribe in Karnataka.

Q2. Which of the following are the interplanetary missions to Mars:

  1. Hayabusa
  2. Tianwen-1
  3. Al-Amal
    Select the correct answer using the code given below:
    a) 1 and 2 only
    b) 2 and 3 only
    c) 3 and 4 only
    d) 1 and 4 only

Solution: b)

 Al- Amal (meaning Hope in arabic) is a spacecraft of the UAE which created history
by entering successfully into the orbit of Mars.
o it is the country’s first interplanetary mission and succeeded in its first
o With this, UAE became the world’s fifth and first arabian country to reach
the Martian orbit.
 China is also launching an ambitious mission to Mars, Tianwen-1.
About OSIRIS-REx Mission:
 It is the United States’ first asteroid sample return mission, aiming to collect and
carry a pristine, unaltered sample from an asteroid back to earth for scientific study.
 The OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security,
Regolith Explorer) spacecraft was launched in 2016 for the journey to Bennu.
 The mission is essentially a seven-year-long voyage and will conclude when at least
60 grams of samples are delivered back to the Earth (in 2023).
 Hayabusa 2 was launched from Japan’s Tanegashima space centre in 2014 and
took four years to reach the asteroid Ryugu.
 The mission builds on the original Hayabusa mission that was launched in 2003
and successfully linked up with asteroid Itokawa in 2005.
 It returned samples to Earth in 2010 marking the first time when sample materials
from an asteroid were brought back to Earth.
 Hayabusa is the Japanese term used for the peregrine falcon, which is the fastest
bird during its hunting dive (200 mile per hour).

Q3. Consider the following statements:

  1. The Constitution empowers the Chief Justice of India to establish certain additional
    courts for the better administration of laws on matters enumerated in the Union
  2. The Constitution authorises Parliament to appoint other place or places, than Delhi
    as seat of the Supreme Court.
    Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
    a) 1 and 2 only
    b) 1 only
    c) 2 only
    d) None of the above

Solution: d)

 Article 247 of the Constitution gives power to Parliament to establish certain
additional courts for the better administration of laws made by it or of any existing
laws with respect to a matter enumerated in the Union List.
 The Constitution declares Delhi as the seat of the Supreme Court. But it also
authorises the Chief Justice of India to appoint other place/places as seat of the
Supreme Court. He can take decision in this regard only with the approval of the

Q4. Consider the following statements about the Danakil Depression:

  1. It is in the Atacama Desert.
  2. It is one of the hottest, driest, and lowest places on Earth.
  3. In the hot springs and hydrothermal pools of the depression, chemolithotrophs are
    also found.
  4. Depression is important for the study of human evolution as Australopithecus fossil
    was found here.
    Which of the statements given above is/are incorrect?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 and 3 only
    c) 1 and 4 only
    d) 2,3 and 4 only

Solution: a)

Danakil Depression
 Location and Area: The Danakil Depression is the northern part of the Afar Triangle,
a geological depression caused by the Afar Triple Junction: a place where three
tectonic plates join.
 The Depression overlaps the borders of Eritrea, Djibouti, and the entire Afar Region
of Ethiopia. It is part of the great East African Rift Valley (see map).
 Here the tectonic plates (Arabian, Somali and Nubian plates) are moving apart along
three deep rifts at a rate of 1-2 cm per year. Hence, statement 1 is not correct.
 A rift valley is where the Earth’s tectonic plates move apart, creating new crust and
generally dominated by chains of small volcanoes.
 Climate: It is one of the hottest, driest, and lowest places on Earth and average
rainfall is 100- 200 mm per year and it is also one of the lowest places on the planet
(125 m below sea level).
 Combined, these factors make it one of the most inhospitable environments in the
world. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
 There are volcanoes dotted with lava lakes, multi-coloured hydrothermal fields, and
great salt pans.The many colours are caused by sulphur and potassium salts
 The salt deposits were created when water from the Red Sea flooded the area and
then evaporated. The most recent flood was roughly 30,000 years ago
 The lava lake in the active volcano Erta Ale, one of only 6 lava lakes on Earth is
located here.
 The Dallol volcano’s hydrothermal fields make a multi-coloured scene made up of
salt deposits, hot springs and miniature geysers.’
 Chemolithotrophs (extremophiles) are also found in the hot springs and
hydrothermal pools.
 Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors
in their environments. In chemolithotrophs, the compounds – the electron donors –
are oxidized in the cell, and the electrons are channeled into respiratory chains,
ultimately producing ATP. Hence, statement 3 is correct.
 In 1974, Donald Johanson found the celebrated Australopithecus fossil known as
“Lucy” in the region.
 Many other fossils of ancient hominins have been uncovered here, prompting some
palaeontologists to propose that this area is where our species first evolved. As a
result, it is often referred to as the “cradle of humanity”. Hence, statement 4 is

Q5. ‘Outgoing longwave radiation’, a term in the news, is related with
a) Arrival of monsoon in India
b) X-rays
c) Nuclear rays
d) Earthquakes

Solution: a)

Outgoing Long-wave Radiation (OLR) is electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths from 3–
100 μm emitted from Earth and its atmosphere out to space in the form of thermal
radiation. It is also referred to as up-welling long-wave radiation and terrestrial long-wave
flux, among others.
Criteria for dates of arrival of monsoon
The criteria are
 Rain-bearing westerlies being at a minimum depth and speed at least 60% of
the available 14 stations in Kerala
 Coastal Karnataka reporting rainfall of 2.5 mm or more for two consecutive days
after May 10
A certain degree of clouding, indicated by a parameter called ‘outgoing longwave
radiation’ (OLR), being below 200 W/square metre.

Q6. The Nine Degree Channel separates
a) The island of Minicoy from the main Lakshadweep archipelago
b) The island Andaman from Nicobar
c) Lakshadweep from Malabar coast
d) The island of Andaman from Bay of Bengal

Solution: a)

It separates the island of Minicoy from the main
Lakshadweep archipelago. The Kalpeni and Suheli Par, and
Maliku Atoll and Amindivi Subgroup together form the Union
Territory of Lakshadweep.

Q7. Minimum Support Price is announced for which of the

  1. Ragi
  2. Soyabean
  3. Tea
  4. Rubber
  5. Copra
    Choose the correct option using the codes below:
    a) 1,2 and 5
    b) 2,3 and 5
    c) 1,4 and 5
    d) 1,2,3 and 4

Solution: a)

Commission for Agricultural Costs & Prices (CACP) recommends MSP for twenty two crops
and Fair & Remunerative Price (FRP) for sugarcane. The crops for which MSP is announced
comprise seven cereals (paddy, wheat, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, barley and ragi), five
pulses (gram, tur, moong, urad, lentil), seven oilseeds (groundnut, rapeseed-mustard,
soyabean, sesamum, sunflower, safflower, nigerseed), and three commercial crops (copra,
cotton and raw jute).

Q8. With reference to the Sovereign Gold Bonds scheme 2021-22, consider the following

  1. The minimum permissible investment will be one gram of gold.
  2. The tenor of the Bond will be for a period of 8 years with exit option after 5th year to be
    exercised on the next interest payment dates.
    Which of the statements given above is/are incorrect?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: d)

 The Central Government in consultation with the Reserve Bank of India, has
decided to issue Sovereign Gold Bonds.
 The Sovereign Gold Bonds will be issued in six tranches from 17th May to
September 2021.
 The Bonds will be sold through Scheduled Commercial banks (except Small Finance
Banks and Payment Banks), Stock Holding Corporation of India Limited (SHCIL),
designated post offices, and recognised stock exchanges viz., National Stock
Exchange of India Limited and Bombay Stock Exchange Limited.
 The minimum permissible investment will be one gram of gold.
 Investors will be compensated at a fixed rate of 2.50 percent per annum payable
semi-annually on the nominal value.
 The Bonds will be restricted for sale to resident individuals, Hindu Undivided
Families, Trusts, Universities and Charitable Institutions.
 The tenor of the Bond will be for a period of 8 years with exit option after 5th year
to be exercised on the next interest payment dates.

Q9. Which of the following species are critically endangered in IUCN Red List?

  1. Great Indian Bustard
  2. Forest Owlet
  3. Cheetah
  4. Leopard
  5. Himalayan Quail
    Select the correct answer using the code below
    a) 1,2 and 3 only
    b) 1,2,3 and 4 only
    c) 1, 3,4 and 5 only
    d) 1 and 5 only

Solution: d)

Species IUCN Status
Great Indian Bustard- Critically Endangered
Forest Owlet- Endangered
Cheetah- Extinct
Leopard- Vulnerable
Himalayan Quail- Critically Endangered

Q10. Consider the followings statements1. Apple is cultivated in Temperate regions of India.

  1. Apple grow best on drained and loamy soil.
  2. China is the largest producer of apple in World.
    Select the correct answer using the code belowa) 1 and 2 only
    b) 3 only
    c) 2 and 3 only
    d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: c)

In India, Apple is primarily cultivated in Jammu & Kashmir; Himachal Pradesh; hills of
Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal. It is also cultivated to a small extent in Arunachal Pradesh;
Nagaland; Punjab and Sikkim.
The apple is a temperate fruit crop. However, in India the apple growing areas do not fall
in temperate zone, but the prevailing temperate climate of the region is due to the
Himalayan ranges and high altitudes. The average summer temperature should be around
21-24oC during active growth period. Apple succeeds best in regions where the trees
experience uninterrupted rest in winter and abundant sunshine for good color
development. It can be grown at an altitude of 1500- 2700 m above the sea level. Well distributed rainfall of 1000-1250 mm throughout the growing season is most favorable for
optimum growth and fruitfulness of apple trees.
Apple (Malus pumila) is commercially the most important temperate fruit and is fourth
among the most widely produced fruits in the world after banana, orange and grape. China
is the largest apple producing country in the world.