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9 DEC CURRENT AFFAIRS (MCQ)

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9 DEC CURRENT AFFAIRS (MCQ)

Q1. The clinical trials in India are governed by

  1. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940
  2. The Medical Council of India Act, 1956
  3. The Central Council for Indian Medicine Act, 1970 Choose the correct answer using the codes given below
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 and 3 only
    c) 1 and 2 only
    d) All of the above

Solution : d)
Explanation :-
Clinical trials in India are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, the Medical Council of India Act, 1956 and the Central Council for Indian Medicine Act, 1970.

Q2. Consider the following statements with respect to the Stockholm Convention on POPs

  1. Signed in 2001, the convention aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
  2. It is legally binding and requires that effectiveness of the measures adopted by the Convention is evaluated in regular intervals.
    Which of the above statement/s is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
Stockholm Convention on POPs:
• Signed in 2001 and effective from 2004, 90 days after the ratification by at least 50 signatory states.
• Aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
• Legally binding: Article 16 of the Convention requires that effectiveness of the measures adopted by the Convention is evaluated in regular intervals.
• The 12 initial POPs under the Stockholm Convention: Initially, twelve POPs have been recognized as causing adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem and these can be placed in 3 categories:
o Pesticides: Aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, toxaphene;
o Industrial chemicals: Hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); and
o By-products: Hexachlorobenzene; polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), and PCBs.
• Recently, the Union Cabinet has approved the ratification of seven more chemicals listed under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).

Q3. Consider the following statements :

  1. The National Research Foundation (NRF) is an autonomous body envisaged under the Science, Technology and Innovation Policy 2020.
  2. NRF will fund research projects across five major disciplines.
    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 & 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : d)
Explanation :-
The National Research Foundation (NRF) is a soon-to-be-set-up autonomous body envisaged under the New Education Policy (NEP) 2020.
• It will look after funding, mentoring, and building ‘quality of research’ in India.
Features:
• The NRF aims to fund researchers working across streams in India. India invests less than 1% of its GDP in research and innovation.
• NRF will fund research projects across four major disciplines –Sciences; Technology; Social Sciences; and Arts and Humanities.
• To ensure increased participation in research, NRF suggests career counselling in schools to identify student interests and talents, promoting research in universities, inclusion of research and internships in the undergraduate curriculum, faculty career management systems that give due weightage to research.
• NRF will provide a “reliable base of merit-based but equitable peer-reviewed research funding” which will help to develop a culture of research in the country through “suitable incentives for and recognition of outstanding research”.
• The NRF will undertake major initiatives to seed and grow research at state universities and other public institutions where research capability is currently limited.

Q4. Consider the following statements:
Which of the following are the benefits of 5G technology?

  1. Higher multi-Gbps peak data speeds,
  2. Ultra high latency,
  3. More uniform user experience to more users
  4. new industries Select the correct code:
    a) 1, 2 & 3
    b) 1, 3 & 4
    c) 2, 3 & 4
    d) 1, 2, 3 & 4

Solution : b)
Explanation :-
5G Technology
• 5G is the 5th generation mobile network.
• It is a new global wireless standard after 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G networks. 5G enables a new kind of network that is designed to connect virtually everyone and everything together including machines, objects, and devices.
• 5G is based on OFDM (Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing), a method of modulating a digital signal across several different channels to reduce interference.
• 5G uses 5G NR air interface alongside OFDM principles.
• 5G also uses wider bandwidth technologies such as sub-6 GHz and mmWave.
• Benefits: 5G wireless technology is meant to deliver o higher multi-Gbps peak data speeds, o ultra low latency, (2 is incorrect) o more reliability, o massive network capacity, o increased availability, and a o more uniform user experience to more users.
o Higher performance and improved efficiency empower new user experiences and connects new industries.

Q5. Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) is released by:
a) Germanwatch
b) NewClimate Institute (Germany)
c) Climate Action Network (CAN International)
d) All the above

Solution : d)
Explanation :-
India remains in the top 10 for the second year in a row in the latest global Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) released in Germany.
• The biggest current emitter of greenhouse gases (GHG) China figures at 33rd rank while the largest historical polluter, the USA, appears at the bottom of the list.
• Though India slid one position down from ninth in 2019 to 10th this year, the country’s journey towards climate protection has been consistent with it improving its ranking from 31st in 2014.
• Globally none of the countries assessed for the annual CCPI report are, however, on the path to meet their Paris Agreement commitment of keeping global warming increase below 2 degree celsius by the end of the century and restrict it to 1.5 degree celsius rise.
• The CCPI 2021, covering the year 2020, shows that only two G20 countries – the UK and India – are among the high rankers while six others – the USA, Saudi Arabia, Canada, Australia, South Korea and Russia (52nd) – are at the bottom of the index.
• The CCPI is developed by not-for-profit organisations Germanwatch and NewClimate Institute (Germany) together with the Climate Action Network (CAN International).
• It is an important tool to enhance transparency in international climate politics and enables comparison of climate protection efforts and progress made by individual countries.
• The latest list is prepared by assessing performances of 57 countries and European Union (as a whole) in four categories – GHG emissions (40%), renewable energy (20%), energy use (20%) and climate policy (20%). These 57 countries and the EU collectively are responsible for about 90% of global GHG emissions.
• Hence, option (d) is the correct answer.

Q6. With reference to the World Heritage City, consider the following statements:

  1. Gwalior and Orchha have been included in the list of World Heritage City by UNESCO.
  2. Orchha located in Rajasthan was the 16th century capital of the erstwhile Bundela dynasty. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : a)
Explanation :-
Gwalior and Orchha of Madhya Pradesh have been included in the list of World Heritage City by UNESCO. Orchha:
• Orchha located in the Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh was the 16th century capital of the erstwhile Bundela dynasty.
• Orchha Raj Mahal, Jahangir Mahal, Ramaraja Mandir, Rai Praveen Mahal, Laxminarayan Mandir and many other famous temples and palaces are famous for a unique confluence of Rajput and Mughal architectural influences. Gwalior:
• At the same time, Gwalior city has been the capital of Gurjar Pratihar, Tomar, Baghel Kachhwahs and Scindia Rajvansh.
• The ancient signs left by them will be found in the form of monuments, forts, palaces. Hence only statement 1 is correct.

Q7. With reference to the Eco-ducts or eco-bridges, consider the following statements:

  1. Ramnagar Forest Division in Nainital district, Uttarakhand, recently built its first eco-bridge for reptiles and smaller mammals.
  2. Eco-ducts or eco-bridges aim to enhance wildlife connectivity that can be disrupted because of highways or logging.
    Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
Ramnagar Forest Division in Nainital district, Uttarakhand, recently built its first eco-bridge for reptiles and smaller mammals.
• Eco-ducts or eco-bridges aim to enhance wildlife connectivity that can be disrupted because of highways or logging. • These include
o canopy bridges (usually for monkeys, squirrels and other arboreal species); o concrete underpasses or overpass tunnels or viaducts (usually for larger animals); and o amphibian tunnels or culverts.
• Usually these bridges are overlaid with planting from the area to give it a contiguous look with the landscape.
Hence both statements are correct.

Q8. With reference to the ‘CO-WIN’, consider the following statements:

  1. The Government of India has introduced a new digital platform called ‘CO-WIN’ for COVID19 vaccine delivery.
  2. The app will have separate modules for administrator, registration, vaccination, beneficiary acknowledgement and reports.
    Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
The Government of India has introduced a new digital platform called ‘CO-WIN’ for COVID-19 vaccine delivery.
• There will be a new mobile app as well with the same name that will allow people to register for the vaccine. The CO-WIN app is yet to be available for smartphone users and it is expected that it will be publicly available soon.
• The platform will be used for recording vaccine data and will form a database of healthcare workers too. All COVID-19 related data necessary for the delivery of the vaccine is presently being uploaded on the CO-WIN platform.
• The app will have separate modules for administrator, registration, vaccination, beneficiary acknowledgement and reports. Once people start to register for the app, the platform will upload bulk data on co-morbidity provided by local authorities. Hence both statements are correct.

Q9. With reference to the Mount Everest, consider the following statements:

  1. The Foreign Ministers of Nepal and China jointly certified the elevation of Mount Everest at 8,848.86 metres above sea level, 86 cm higher than what was recognised since 1954.
  2. Mount Everest rises from the border between China and India.
    Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : a)
Explanation :-
The Foreign Ministers of Nepal and China jointly certified the elevation of Mount Everest at 8,848.86 metres above sea level — 86 cm higher than what was recognised since 1954. In feet, the new elevation is about 29,031 ft, or about 3 ft higher than Nepal’s previous claim.
• This was determined by the Survey of India in 1954, using instruments like theodolites and chains, with GPS still decades away.
• The elevation of 8,848 m came to be accepted in all references worldwide — except by China. Mount Everest rises from the border between Nepal and China. Need for new measurement:
• The devastating earthquake of April 2015 triggered a debate among scientists on whether it had affected the height of the mountain.
• The Nepal’s government subsequently declared that it would measure the mountain on its own, instead of continuing to follow the Survey of India findings of 1954. Hence only statement 1 is correct.

Q10. ‘Operation Blackface’, recently seen in news, is related to:
a) campaign against Child Sexual Abuse Material (CSAM)
b) crackdown on the smuggling of mongoose hair in the country
c) part of monetary policy operation
d) None of the above

Solution : a)
Explanation :-
The cyber wing of the Maharashtra Police recently acquired a software from Interpol that would help them track down child pornography uploaded online. TRACE team set up by Maharashtra Cyber to counter child pornography:
• Earlier this year, 12 officers of Maharashtra cyber were trained by the Interpol officers in the use of this software after which they were provided access to it.
• These 12 officers form the core of Tactical Response Against Cyber Child Exploitation (TRACE) Unit.
• The TRACE unit was primarily set up to act against child pornography in Maharashtra that is part of a larger campaign against Child Sexual Abuse Material (CSAM) across the country since 2019.
‘Operation Blackface’ carried out in Maharashtra:
• ‘Operation Blackface’ is part of the larger action taken against CSAM across the country.
• Acting on the tip off provided by NCRB, Maharashtra Cyber cops started forwarding complaints to the districts where FIR’s were registered against accused persons. Hence, option (a) is the correct answer.