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JAN 5 CURRENT AFFAIRS (MCQ)

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JAN 5 CURRENT AFFAIRS (MCQ)

Q1. Consider the following Mars missions scheduled to be launched in 2021
Mission By

  1. Al Amal Qatar
  2. Chandrayaan-3 India
  3. Perseverance United Kingdom
  4. Tianwen-1 China
    Which of the above pair/s is/are correctly matched? a) 4 only
    b) 1 and 3 only
    c) 2 and 4 only
    d) All of the above

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
Mars missions: In February, Mars will receive a number of terrestrial robotic guests from several countries.
• United Arab Emirates’ Al Amal (Hope): It is the Arab world’s first interplanetary mission. It will spend two years monitoring the Martian weather and disappearing atmosphere.
• China’s Tianwen-1: It consists of an orbiter and a surface rover. If it succeeds, China will become the third country to land anything on Mars. o The mission has several objectives including mapping the mineral composition of the surface and searching for sub-surface water deposits.
• Nasa’s Perseverance rover: It will land at Jezero Crater and search for any signs of ancient life which may have been preserved in the clay deposits there. It will also store samples of Martian surface to return samples of Mars to Earth.
• Chandrayaan-3: In March 2021, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is planning to launch its third lunar mission – Chandrayaan-3. It will consist of only a lander and rover, as the previous mission’s orbiter is still functioning and providing data. o Chandrayaan-1: It launched in 2008 and was one of the first major missions in the Indian space programme. Unfortunately, contact with the satellite was lost less than a year later.
o Chandrayaan-2: There was a similar mishap with its successor, which consisted of an orbiter, a lander (Vikram) and a lunar rover (Pragyan). o Significance: Chandrayaan-3 rover will touch down in the lunar south pole’s Aitken basin. It’s of particular interest as it is thought to host numerous deposits of subsurface water ice.
Hence, option (c) is the correct answer.

Q2. Consider the following statements with respect to the Antarctica – Earth’s only continent without a native human population

  1. The Antarctic treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War.
  2. The Indian Antarctic programme has now been credited to have built three permanent research base stations in Antarctica named – Dakshin Gangotri, Maitri, and Bharati.
    Which of the above statement/s is/are correct? a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
Antarctic Treaty System (ATS):
• The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS).
• It regulates international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth’s only continent without a native human population.
o The treaty sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, establishes freedom of scientific investigation, and bans military activity on the continent.
o The treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War.
o The treaty was a diplomatic expression of the operational and scientific cooperation that had been achieved “on the ice”.
• For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude.
• The treaty entered into force in 1961 and currently has 54 parties. Since September 2004, the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat headquarters has been located in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
• The original signatories were the 12 countries active in Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957-58 – Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Indian Antarctic expeditions:
• Began in 1981: The Indian Antarctic programme has now been credited to have built three permanent research base stations in Antarctica named – Dakshin Gangotri, Maitri, and Bharati.
• Managed by: India has two operational research stations – Maitri and Bharati – in Antarctica managed by the National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR), Goa.
• Objective: To focus on the climate process and its linkages with climate change, crustal evolution, environmental processes and conservation, the ecosystem of terrestrial and near shore regions, observational research, and polar technology. Hence, option (c) is the correct answer.

Q3. Consider the following statements:

  1. Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) is a statutory body under the Ministry of Heavy Industries.
  2. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) has brought ceiling fans under mandatory star labelling.
    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : d)
Explanation :-
Bureau of Energy Efficiency
• Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) is a statutory body under the Ministry of Power.
• It assists in developing policies and strategies with the primary objective of reducing the energy intensity of the Indian economy.
• The Star Labeling Programme has been formulated by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, under the Energy Conservation Act, 2001.
• The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to bring ceiling fans under mandatory labelling from 2022,
The following products have been notified under mandatory labeling.

  1. Frost Free (No-Frost) Refrigerator
  2. Tubular Fluorescent Lamps
  3. Room Air Conditioners
  4. Distribution Transformers
  5. Room Air Conditioners (Cassette, Floor Standing Tower, Ceiling, Corner AC)
  6. Direct Cool Refrigerator
  7. Electric Geysers
  8. Color TV
  9. Room Air Conditioners (Inverter type)
  10. LED lamps
    Hence, option (d) is the correct answer.

Q4. Consider the following statements:

  1. India represents the Asia-pacific seat at the UN Security Council.
  2. ‘Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism’ (CCIT) was proposed first by India.
    Which of the above statements is/are correct? a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
• India was elected by United Nations (UN) member-countries overwhelmingly for a non-permanent seat to the 15-member UN Security Council (UNSC) for a two yearterm.
• India had been elected “unopposed” as it was “the sole candidate for the Asia-Pacific seat.

About ‘Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism’ (CCIT)
• It provides a legal framework which makes it binding on all signatories to deny funds and safe havens to terrorist groups.
• Proposed first by India in 1996, the ratification of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism is impeded due to opposition from the US and OIS countries. • Its major objectives are:
•To have a universal definition of terrorism that all 193-members of the UNGA will adopt into their own criminal law
•To ban all terror groups and shut down terror camps
•To prosecute all terrorists under special laws
•To make cross-border terrorism an extraditable offence worldwide.
Its opposition:
• The US, the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC), and the Latin American countries have objections over the “definition of terrorism” (the most divisive of the issues).
• For example, the OIC wants exclusion of national liberation movements, especially in the context of Israel-Palestinian conflict.
• The US wanted the draft to exclude acts committed by military forces of states during peacetime.
Hence, option (c) is the correct answer.

Q5. With reference to the Kolar Leaf-Nosed Bat, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a species of bat in the family Hipposideridae.
  2. It is found in only one cave in Hanumanahalli village in the Kolar district of Karnataka, and its population is less than 200 individuals.
    Which of the statements given above is/are correct? a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
The Karnataka Forest Department, along with the Bat Conservation India Trust (BCIT), is on a war footing to save the Kolar Leaf-Nosed Bat from extinction.
• It is a species of bat in the family Hipposideridae.
• Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and caves.
• It is endemic to India. It is found in only one cave in Hanumanahalli village in the Kolar district of Karnataka, and its population is less than 200 individuals.
• It is currently evaluated as critically endangered by the IUCN.
• Hence both statements are correct.

Q6. Deepor Beel is a wetland located in:
a) Sikkim
b) Assam
c) Nagaland
d) Manipur

Solution : b)
Explanation :-
The Kamrup (Metropolitan) district administration has prohibited community fishing in Deepor Beel, a wetland on the south-western edge of Guwahati and Assam’s only Ramsar site.
• The order was necessary to prevent fishing, excavation and construction in and around the wetland that has been shrinking over the years.
• Deepor Beel was designated a Ramsar site in 2002 for sustaining a range of aquatic life forms besides 219 species of birds.
• A Ramsar site is a wetland designated to be of international importance under the Convention on Wetlands on February 2, 1971, in the Iranian city of Ramsar.
• Hence, option (b) is the correct answer.

Q7. With reference to the Ramateertham temple, consider the following statements:

  1. It is located in Andhra Pradesh.
  2. Ramateertham is one of the places made sacred by a traditional connection with Lord Sree Rama.
    Which of the statements given above is/are correct? a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
The 16th century Ramateertham temple turned into a political war zone with a triangular fight among leaders of the TDP, the BJP and the ruling YSR Congress Party as they tried to get maximum political mileage with regard to the vandalism of the idol of Lord Rama at the Kodandarama Swamy temple.
• The idol of Lord Rama atop the historic Ramateertham temple, located 12 km from Vizianagaram, was vandalised on December 29. A part of the idol was identified in a small pond on December 31.
• Ramateertham is a village panchayat in Nellimarla mandal of Vizianagaram district in Andhra Pradesh in India. It is about 12 km from Vizianagaram city.
• Ramateertham is one of the places made sacred by a traditional connection with Lord Sree Rama.
• The famous ancient temple of Ramachandra Swamy can be found here. The beautiful idols of Lord Ramachandra Swamy, Sita and Lakshmana in Silver kavachas can be seen at this temple. Hence both statements are correct.

Q8. Consider the following statements:

  1. Recently a team from the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay devised a new metric or measure called the Tide–Rainfall Flood Quotient to understand if a coastal city is more prone to floods caused by tidal events or extreme rainfall.
  2. The C40 Cities report of 2018 notes that by 2050, over 570 low-lying coastal cities will face projected sea level rise by at least 0.5 meters. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
To understand if a coastal city is more prone to floods caused by tidal events or extreme rainfall, a team from the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay devised a new metric or measure called the Tide–Rainfall Flood Quotient.
• Using the past rainfall data, tidal data, and topography of the region this framework can be applied to pinpoint the major factor at play.
• The team selected three geographically diverse flood-prone coastal regions – Mithi Catchment in Mumbai, Maharashtra, Jagatsinghpur District in Odisha, and Greater Chennai Corporation in Tamil Nadu to test their new metric.
• The new method helped classify these regions into ‘storm-tide dominated’ or ‘pluvial (rainfall) dominated’ regions.
• The metric can help disaster management experts in framing better flood risk management systems directed towards long term planning.
• The C40 Cities report of 2018 notes that by 2050, over 570 low-lying coastal cities will face projected sea level rise by at least 0.5 meters, putting over 800 million people at risk from the impacts of rising seas and storm surges.
• While the inland areas can be flooded due to the heavy rainfall, the coasts are threatened by the impact of tidal surges.
• Hence both statements are correct.

Q9. With reference to the Khanij Bidesh India Ltd, consider the following statements:

  1. It was incorporated in August, 2019 by three state-owned companies, NALCO, Hindustan Copper and Mineral Exploration Ltd.
  2. It aims to acquire strategic mineral assets such as lithium and cobalt abroad. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? a) 1 Only
    b) 2 Only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution : c)
Explanation :-
India, through a newly-floated state-owned company, inked a pact with an Argentine firm mid-last year to jointly prospect lithium in the South American country that has the third largest reserves of lithium.
• The new company, Khanij Bidesh India Ltd was incorporated in August, 2019 by three stateowned companies, NALCO, Hindustan Copper and Mineral Exploration Ltd, with a specific mandate to acquire strategic mineral assets such as lithium and cobalt abroad
• It is also learnt to be exploring options in Chile and Bolivia, two other top lithium-producing countries.
• Lithium, the silver-white alkali metal is a crucial building block of the lithium-ion rechargeable batteries that power electric vehicles (EVs), laptops and mobile phones.
• Currently, India is heavily dependent on import of these cells and the move to ink sourcing pacts for lithium is seen as another salvo in the front against China, a key source of both the raw material and cells.
• Hence both statements are correct.

Q10. Sabari River is one of the main tributaries of which of the following river? a) Krishna
b) Godavari
c) Periyar
d) Yamuna

Solution : b)
Explanation :-
In a unique initiative, Migrant fisher-folk families have built temporary houses on the sands of Sabari river near Chintoor village along the tri-State border of Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Chhattisgarh in East Godavari Agency.
• Sabari River is one of the main tributaries of Godavari.
• It originates from the western slopes of Eastern Ghats in Odisha state from Sinkaram hill ranges. It forms common boundary between Chhattisgarh and Odisha states and later enters into Andhra Pradesh to merge with River Godavari.
• It is also known as Kolab river in Odisha. Upper Kolab project, located in Odisha across the Sabari is a major dam project supplying water for irrigation and Hydro power generation.
• Sileru River (known as Machkund in its upper reaches) is the major tributary of Sabari which joins Sabari river at tri-junction boundary point of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Odisha. Sileru river has huge potential of hydro electricity generation. • Hence, option (b) is the correct answer.